What is the Problem?
Commercial aviation is extremely safe
However, if an accident occurs, it’s most likely because the pilot lost control over his/her airplane. The accidents involving AirAsia flight 8501 in December 2014, Air France 447 in June 2009, Turkish Airlines 1751, Colgan Air 3407 in February 2009, and several others are examples.
Industry determined that existing practices can be both ineffective and sometimes even contribute to LOC-I accidents. During a sudden unexpected event, a pilot may apply the incorrect action, thereby making the situation worse.
It is vital that any training considers the interaction between the pilot and the airplane, and helps to ensure that this connection is maintained during all situations.
What is an Upset?
An airplane upset is an undesired aircraft state characterised by unintentional divergences from parameters normally experienced during operations. An airplane upset may involve pitch and/or bank angle divergences, or an aerodynamic stall. These can lead to Loss of Control. Hence, preventing and recovering from upsets is the goal of UPRT.
The most essential part of UPRT is the “P”, or “PREVENTION”: Our training focuses on raising awareness, the recognition of conditions that could lead to upsets, and then systematically training correct intervention techniques for the specific airplane.
The concept of UPRT was introduced in 2009 when there was no regulation applicable to this form of training. However, it became clear that introducing this safety enhancement to pilot knowledge and skills required assurances that it was being implemented correctly and without unintended consequences.
ICAO implemented UPRT into its overall framework, referring to UPRT provisions from Annex 1, Annex 6 and PANS-TRAINING. These are shown below.
As a result, ICAO took on the task of creating Document 10011, the Manual on Aeroplane UPRT, providing guidance on how it should be implemented worldwide. Member states then took on the task of implementing mandates for their respective regions.
The regulations primarily state:
- UPRT academic instruction for all pilots and instructors
- Proper use of simulators, ensuring the instructor understands their capabilities and limitations
- Specialised training for UPRT instructors on knowledge and skills
- Training programs that develop the skills and knowledge on prevention and recovery from upsets
These recommendations were integrated into ICAO Manual 10011.
ICAO’s recommended simulator requirements for UPRT are published in Document 9625.
Doc 9625 “Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices”, Volume 1 — Aeroplanes Fourth Edition, 2015
ICAO published amendments to Annexes 1 and 6 in 2014, detailing SARPs aimed at mitigating LOC-I, by introducing the concept of UPRT.
The amendments to ICAO Annex 1 mandate UPRT for the MPL and multi-pilot type rating training course. In addition, ICAO recommends UPRT in an aeroplane for the CPL training course.
Furthermore, the amendments to ICAO Annex 6 contain requirements for UPRT programmes for all Commercial Air Transport (CAT) aeroplane operators. ICAO also provided further supporting guidance on UPRT in ICAO Doc 9868 ‘Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Training (PANS-TRG)’ and ICAO Doc 10011 ‘Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and
Moreover, ICAO published amendments to ICAO Doc 9625 ‘Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices’ containing provisions on flight simulation training device (FSTD) aerodynamic modelling, instructor operating station (IOS) and on what manoeuvres should and should not be trained in an FSTD to avoid negative transfer of training, in support of UPRT.
National Authority Implementation
EASA issued in May 2015 under parts ORO.FC.220 and ORO.FC.230. Final implementation of all EASA requirements was published under Part FCL for training, and for simulator requirements under CS-FSTD(A).
EASA Rules for UPRT
EASA Rules apply now through both Part ORO (Operator-level requirements), as well as Part FCL (licensing). In fact, EASA UPRT rules apply to all pilot license
holders, and not just those operating commercial airliners (as opposed to the FAA regulation, which currently only applies to Part 121 Air Carriers).
The specific objective of EASA’s UPRT rule making task has been to ensure that initial and operator training and checking is adequate to provide pilots with the knowledge, skills and attitude to be competent in preventing and, if necessary, recovering from an upset event. EASA had developed amendments to the
Aircrew Regulation in order to ensure adequate transposition of the amendments to the ICAO SARPs into the European Union requirements by requiring:
1. Basic UPRT for all aeroplanes (for the MPL(A), CPL(A) and ATP(A) training courses);
2. Advanced UPRT in an aeroplane for the CPL(A), MPL(A) and ATP(A) training courses;
3. ‘Type-Specific’ UPRT for all type rating training courses (and will be in the MPL Advanced phase).
The related ED Decision, containing the AMC/GM includes the UPRT elements for;
4. the MPL(A), CPL(A), ATP(A) training syllabi
5. Single and Multi-Pilot Type Rating training to include :
• training in flight mechanics;
• training in all applicable flight control laws of the aeroplane type and the operational consequences resulting from law degradations;
• training in all the relevant specificities of a certain aeroplane type;
• recovery exercises from (impending) stall situations during the take-off and the approach phase;
• manual aeroplane handling exercises and techniques during stall prevention and stall recovery scenarios, including exercises at high altitude;
• realistic training scenarios that contain surprise and startle effects;
• more emphasis on manual aeroplane handling skills and, for initial type rating training, a
requirement to conduct a go-around in the aeroplane with all engines operating;
• training on the conduct of a go-around at low speed with pitch trim in an unusual nose-up position, and consider including this exercise in the skill test or
proficiency check; and
• more emphasis on the potential degradation of situational awareness (basic pilot skills) and flight path management due to the increased flight crew
reliance on aircraft automation; and
6. the LAPL(A) and PPL(A) training syllabi, adapted to the safety risks identified during the Agency’s safety review in GA.
The following are applicable since December 2019 under EASA:
UPRT for initial licensing, class and type rating training
CS-FSTD Issue 2 (elements) for FSTDs used for;
- UPRT in class and type ratings
- UPRT in CAT operators recurrent training
EASA UPRT Applicability
UPRT will apply to all EASA pilots of fixed-wing aircraft. For the purpose of this discussion, the various levels are delineated below.
UPRT under Part FCL (Licensing):
• a light version of UPRT applies to non-commercial pilots (PPL, LAPL holders)
• Basic UPRT
• Advanced UPRT (for those pursuing a license in the commercial sector)
UPRT under Part ORO (Operators)
• Pilots entering this level are now required to have the Advanced UPRT in advance
• Current pilots who do not have the Advanced UPRT training must undergo an Initial Operator
UPRT course, developed by the operator
EASA UPRT Structure for Pilots
The following is the structure for the EASA rule for airline pilots starting from the bottom to the top, as they progress through their career.
EASA Structure for instructors conducting UPRT
The following applies to instructors who deliver UPRT at either the Licensing level or at the Operator (airline) level.
EASA Links Applicable to UPRT
The FAA has issued Part 121.423 changes for UPRT, including post-stall training in simulators. These are driven by Public Law 111-216 Sec 208, Implementation of NTSB Flight Crew member Training Recommendations. The FAA requires all Part 121 pilots to be UPRT-trained by March 2020.
FAA Links Applicable to UPRT
IDT’s role in UPRT
Having been at the helm of developing these requirements, IDT implements these solutions into airline training programs.
We train your top instructors, we deliver the UPRT training tools and we ensure that your training program meets regulatory requirements.